The antioxidant function of Coenzyme Q10

woman-leaning-against-the-tree
To live as long in life as we can and stay as young as we can, we need the protection of antioxidants. Coenzyme Q10 is, practically, a human immune system in itself. It quenches harmful free radicals and keeps them from damaging our cells and our DNA.

One theory to explain the process of aging is that there is an accumulation of oxidative damage through the years.  Oxidative damage is the damage to cells and DNA and lipids that occurs as a result of an excess of reactive oxygen species (also called free radicals) beyond the body’s ability to neutralize the harmful free radicals.  The free radical theory of aging presupposes higher free radical production and lower antioxidant protection in older adults.  In accordance with this theory, the use of supplements with antioxidant effects such as Coenzyme Q10, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and various carotenoids and flavonoids is desirable.

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Dr. Judy explains Coenzyme Q10 and the Q cycle

Woman in front of water
As we get older, we need a good Coenzyme Q10 supplement. Once we pass our 20’s, our bodies produce less and less Coenzyme Q10, and we do not get enough in our diets to make up the difference.

Coenzyme Q10, the essential bio-nutrient, is categorized as a redox molecule.  The Coenzyme Q10 molecules exist in three different forms as they take part in redox reactions in the body.  It is the ability of the Coenzyme Q10 molecules to give up or take on one or two electrons that makes Coenzyme Q10 so valuable both in the process of cellular energy production and in cellular antioxidant activities.

What is a redox reaction?
Redox is short for reduction-oxidation.  Redox reactions are quite common in nature.  Such everyday processes as combustion (burning), corrosion (rusting), photosynthesis (converting sunlight into energy), and respiration (exchanging gases between the blood and the tissue fluids) involve redox reactions.

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Coenzyme Q10 on prescription?

Mother and daughter
We know that the body’s production of Coenzyme Q10 begins to decrease with age once we reach our 20’s, and we know that Coenzyme Q10 plays an important role in both cellular bio-energetics and antioxidant protection. It just makes sense to supplement our diets with Coenzyme Q10 in an attempt to avoid heart failure later on in life.

For as long as I have been writing this blog, I have been wondering why cardiologists are not prescribing Coenzyme Q10 for certain classes of heart disease patients.  Two classes of patients come to mind immediately: chronic heart failure patients and patients taking statin medications.  Let’s look at the evidence for heart failure patients. (We can talk about patients on statin medications next week.)

Coenzyme Q10 and chronic heart failure
Chronic heart failure.  Heart failure.  It sounds scary.  It is scary.  The words “heart failure” do not mean that the heart has stopped working.  What heart failure means is some combination of the following conditions:

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Dr. Judy explains Coenzyme Q10 absorption

Bill Judy Picture
Dr. William Judy, founder and director of the SIBR Institute, is arguably the world’s leading expert on Coenzyme Q10 absorption. He has led numerous lab studies and animal studies and clinical trials on the absorption and effects of Coenzyme Q10 preparations.

We know that Coenzyme Q10 is an essential co-factor in at least three important processes in the body: cellular energy production, cellular and lipid antioxidant defense, and regulation of endothelial cell function. We know that our adult bodies produce less Coenzyme Q10 with increasing age, and we know that most of us cannot make up the difference through the food that we eat [6]. From the age of 40 on, we need a good Coenzyme Q10 supplement daily.  I asked Dr. William Judy what is involved in getting a good Coenzyme Q10 supplement.

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Coenzyme Q10 and people taking statin medications

Cholesterol
Yes, cholesterol lowering statin medications have proven to be effective at lowering cholesterol. Yes, statin medications are generally well-tolerated. But … statin medications inhibit the body’s synthesis of Coenzyme Q10. Anyone taking a statin medication needs to be taking a supplement to restore the depleted Coenzyme Q10.

Last week, we looked at the question of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation for chronic heart failure patients.  We know that chronic heart failure patients have abnormally reduced levels of Coenzyme Q10 in both their blood and their heart muscle tissue [Folkers 1985, Kitamura 1984].  We know that supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 can increase blood Coenzyme Q10 levels and can improve outcomes in the treatment of chronic heart failure and in coronary artery bypass surgery [Morisco 1993, Mortensen 2014, Rosenfeldt 2002].

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Coenzyme Q10 and inflammation

Beautiful woman
Being healthy and in good physical condition means having low levels of inflammation in our bodies. A simple blood test of the levels of C-reactive protein in our blood shows the level of inflammation. The CRP levels predict the risk of heart disease and stroke. Daily supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 and the trace element selenium has been shown to reduce CRP and inflammation levels.

Data from gold standard studies – randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies – indicate that daily supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 significantly reduces the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the body.  Our bodies produce CRP as a by-product of the inflammation process.  Consequently, increased levels of CRP in the blood indicate increased levels of inflammation.

Inflammation and increased risk of heart disease
Inflammation of our arteries is positively associated with an increased risk of heart disease and heart attack and stroke. Moreover, increased inflammation can be an indicator of other conditions such as infections and arthritis.

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Is Coenzyme Q10 something of a black swan?

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There was a time, before Cook discovered Australia, when we thought that all swans are white. Coenzyme Q10 is something of a black swan. For many people, CoQ10’s existence is unknown, and its massive beneficial health effects for heart disease patients are unknown. Coenzyme Q10 is a bio-nutrient that is used as an adjunct to conventional medicines. The Australian researcher Dr. Franklin Rosenfeldt has published extensively on the impact of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation.

Prof. Franklin L. Rosenfeldt, Baker Heart Research Institute, Alfred Hospital, Monash University, Australia, is known to the readers of the articles on this website.  Dr. Rosenfeldt focuses in on the role of Coenzyme Q10 in cardiovascular health and disease.  He is interesting because his research has shown the efficacy of supplementation with Coenzyme Q10 in the following situations:

  • before and after heart surgery
  • in the adjuvant treatment of chronic heart disease
  • in the adjuvant treatment of hypertension
  • in the protection of the aging heart

In this article, I would like to highlight some of the research results that Professor Rosenfeldt and his team of researchers in Australia have achieved.

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Coenzyme Q10 and energy and fitness

swimmers triathlon
Competing in a triathlon or in long distance races requires lots of energy over extended periods. Coenzyme Q10 is instrumental in the body’s production of ATP, the body’s basic unit for the storage of energy in its chemical form.

What about Coenzyme Q10 and energy and physical fitness, I have been wondering.  I know that Coenzyme Q10 in its ubiquinone form plays a vital role in the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules in the mitochondria in the cells.

The ATP molecules are the basic units of energy in the body.  The ATP molecules are what provide the energy for the contraction and extension of muscles.

Q10 and ATP and muscle aches and fatigue
Even when we are rested up, we do not have enough ATP molecules to allow us to exert ourselves intensely for more than a few minutes.  When we exercise very intensively (run sprints, for example) or exercise strenuously for longer periods, our muscle tissues are forced to go from aerobic energy production, i.e. from burning oxygen, to the anaerobic (non-oxygen-burning fermentation) mode of energy production.

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Talking with Dr. Judy about Coenzyme Q10 absorption

Bill Judy Picture
Dr. William Judy holds a Ph.D. in physiology and bio-physics, he taught physiology for many years in the Indiana University College of Medicine, and he has been doing research on the absorption and effects of Coenzyme Q10 for 30 years now. He is currently the chairman of SIBR Research.

How do we get optimal amounts of Coenzyme Q10 to produce the energy that we need?  That is the question that I asked of Dr. Judy.  I wanted Dr. Judy to tell me what conclusions he has arrived at based on his own CoQ10 research studies and on his reading of other CoQ10 research studies.  In what follows, I have summarized many of the important points that Dr. Judy makes.

Subject: the body’s own synthesis of CoQ10
The liver, because of its rather large mass, produces relatively more Coenzyme Q10 than other organs do. In fact, Dr. Karl Folkers thought that the endogenously produced CoQ10 in the blood comes primarily from the liver.  But, Dr. Judy tells me, other organs – the heart, the kidneys, the brain – certainly do also produce Coenzyme Q10.  And, actually, some Coenzyme Q10 is being synthesized in practically all of the cells in the body that have healthy mitochondria.  After all, every cell in the body needs energy to carry out its functions, and the energy production process requires the presence of ubiquinone Q10.

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Why I am taking ubiquinone Q10 capsules

Q10 molecule
Coenzyme Q10, known as ubiquinone in its oxidized form and as ubiquinol in its reduced form, is a large fat-soluble essential bio-nutrient. The ubiquinone form is a vital component of the energy production process in the cells, and the ubiquinol form provides antioxidant protection throughout the body.

I am a long-time taker of ubiquinone Q10 supplements. 100 mg a day. I take the same ubiquinone Q10 capsules that were used in the Q-SYMBIO and KiSel-10 studies. As a consequence, I think, I have no problems with heart disease, diabetes, and hypertension. May it continue so.

Happy with my ubiquinone Q10 capsules
When, in 2007 – 2008, ubiquinol QH2 products became available commercially for the first time, I didn’t pay any attention, really. My supplement pattern – Q10, selenium, zinc, B-vitamins, vitamin C, fish oil – was not broken. Why fix it?

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