Coenzyme Q10 adjuvant treatment of heart failure patients significantly improves the symptoms and survival of chronic heart failure patients [Mortensen; Morisco; Munkholm].
How does it look with Coenzyme Q10 molecules are fat-soluble molecules that are both bsynthesized in the body and ingested in the diet and in supplements. Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in the body in the same biological pathway as cholesterol. Bio-synthesis of Coenzyme Q10 begins to decline once humans reach their adult years. The reduced production of Coenzyme Q10 cannot be compensated in any practical... Read more about this term supplementation and coronary artery disease?
Coronary artery disease is caused by hardening and narrowing of the coronary arteries that bring blood to the heart muscle? Coronary artery disease is also known as Ischemic heart disease is heart disease caused by reduced blood flow to the heart. Ischemic heart disease is, in most cases, coronary artery disease. Blockage of the coronary arteries reduces the flow of blood and oxygen to the heart.... Read more about this term, which is heart disease characterized by reduced flow of blood containing oxygen to the heart muscle.
Atherosclerosis is the thickening of the artery walls brought about by the build-up of plaque (plaque is made up of cholesterol and other fatty substances and waste products and calcium and fibrin) and the subsequent slowing of the flow of blood through the clogged arteries. More research is needed into the role of Coenzyme Q10 in the prevention and adjunct... Read more about this term is the medical term for the form of heart disease that is caused by damage to the inner layer of arteries. High amounts of cholesterol in the blood are thought to contribute to the build-up of plaque, which causes the arteries to harden and narrow. If, then, pieces of plaque break open, blood platelets stick to the ruptured area and form blood clots, which narrow the arteries even more, restricting the blood flow even more. The result can be coronary artery disease or heart attack or stroke.
A recent meta-analysis of eight clinical studies shows that CoQ10 supplementation significantly decreased total cholesterol and significantly increased HDL-cholesterol levels in patients with coronary artery disease [Jorat].
CoQ10 supplementation and coronary artery disease
The researchers doing this meta-analysis selected eight clinical studies (with 267 participants in the intervention groups and 259 in the placebo groups) for analysis [Jorat].
- Seven clinical trials had a A double-blind study is a study in which neither the investigators nor the study participants know which participants are receiving the active treatment and which participants are receiving the control treatment until the study has been completed and the seal on the code has been broken.... Read more about this term design; one of the trials was single-blind. Seven trials used parallel design, and one used cross-over design.
- The duration of the intervention in the eight trials ranged from 4 to 48 weeks.
As indicated above, the combined results from the eight studies show The outcome of a clinical trial is thought to have statistical significance, or to be statistically significant, if the outcome is likely not caused by chance at a given statistical significance level, typically at the 0.05 level. Statistically significant outcomes may or may not be clinically significant. ... Read more about this term improvements in total cholesterol and in HDL-cholesterol, arguably the most important components of the patients’ lipid profiles [Jorat].
The results did not show significant improvements, however, in triglyceride levels, LDL-cholesterol levels, and lipoprotein a levels in the coronary artery disease patients [Jorat].
The authors of the meta-analysis explain that there were differences in the study design, the study participants’ characteristics, the dosage of the CoQ10 supplementation, and the duration of intervention in the eight analyzed studies [Jorat].
How does CoQ10 supplementation help in coronary artery disease?
The evidence from the meta-analysis indicates that Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is significantly associated with improvements in total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol, which are implicated as factors in the development of atherosclerosis, the hardening of the arteries.
Moreover, elevated total cholesterol and elevated LDL-cholesterol and low HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with the following troubling developments:
- impaired mitochondrial function
- increased production of harmful Free radicals are unstable and highly reactive molecules that are produced in the body during normal oxygen metabolism. Free radicals derived from oxygen are known as reactive oxygen species. Free radicals play both helpful and harmful roles in the body. Free radicals steal electrons from other substances in order to become stable. In so doing, the free radicals oxidize those... Read more about this term and The free radicals of most concern in the bio-medical field are the free radicals derived from oxygen, they are called reactive oxygen species. Specifically, there are the superoxide anions, the peroxides including hydrogen peroxide, and the hydroxyl radicals. Free radicals are unstable and highly reactive molecules that are produced in the body during normal oxygen metabolism. Free radicals play both... Read more about this term
- chronic Inflammation is an immune system response to an injury to cells or tissues. It is the body’s attempt to defend against invaders such as bacteria andviruses and to mend the damage done by invaders. Typically, inflammation manifests itself in the form of fever and swelling, in the swarming of white blood cells and the release of cytokines to fight against... Read more about this term and Endothelial dysfunction may be thought of as the failure of the cells lining the inside of arteries and veins to regulate properly blood vessel relaxation and contraction, blood clotting, immune function, and platelet adhesion. Endothelial dysfunction prevents the blood vessels from dilating sufficiently and can lead to increased risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is associated... Read more about this term
Coenzyme Q10 is a fat-soluble intracellular antioxidant
Coenzyme Q10 is an intracellular fat-soluble Antioxidants are substances that protect the cells and lipoproteins against the harmful effects of free radicals. They are substances that prevent the oxidation of other molecules and compounds. There are two broad categories of antioxidants: enzymatic and non-enzymatic. Non-enzymatic antioxidants are substances like Coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and various carotenoids. Prominent enzymatic antioxidants include catalase, glutathione peroxidase,... Read more about this term that quenches harmful free radicals and attenuates the dysfunction that is caused by oxidative stress and inflammation [Jorat].
A second meta-analysis of 13 clinical studies conducted by Dr. Jorat and his colleagues showed that Coenzyme Q10 supplementation was associated with significantly increased levels of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase [Jorat]. Superoxide dismutase and catalase are important components of the body’s endogenous defense against cell damage caused by harmful free radicals.
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation in these 13 studies was also associated with significantly reduced levels of malondialdehyde, a reliable bio-marker for oxidative stress. The Coenzyme Q10 supplementation was also associated with reduced levels of conjugated dienes, which can act as toxic tissue messengers [Jorat].
In a 2013 Taiwanese study, Coenzyme Q10 supplementation of coronary artery disease patients with at least 50% stenosis of at least one major coronary artery was associated with significantly increased levels of the endogenous antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase and with significantly reduced levels of bio-markers for inflammation [Lee].
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation during ageing and statin use
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation seems especially to be indicated for two conditions:
- Ageing: as we grow older – beyond our 20s – we bio-synthesize less and less CoQ10 with increasing age. It is impossible to make up the loss by eating more food [Kalén; Judy].
- Using statin medications: statin medications inhibit the body’s production of Coenzyme Q10 just as surely as they inhibit the body’s production of cholesterol. Supplementation is the only known way to make up for the loss of endogenous CoQ10 [Okuyama]
Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and important clinical trial outcomes
The Mayo Clinic defines heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure and/or chronic heart failure, as the failure of the heart muscle to pump blood to the body adequately. In other words, heart failure is not a heart attack, and it is not death from heart disease, which its name might seem to imply. Heart failure is a condition... Read more about this term: the results of the Q-Symbio study showed significant improvements in the symptoms and survival of chronic heart failure patients [Mortensen]
Gulf War Illness: the results of the Gulf War Illness study showed significant improvement in physical function and improvement in 19 of 20 symptoms tested [Golomb].
Senior citizens: the results of the KiSel-10 study showed reduced risk of better mortality, better heart function, lower bio-marker levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiac fibrosis, and increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [Alehagen].
Coenzyme Q10 and oxidative stress reduction
The authors of the meta-analysis conclude that CoQ10 supplementation can CoQ10 can reduce total cholesterol, promote HDL-cholesterol production, suppress inflammation, and reduce levels of malondialdehyde, a known bio-marker for oxidative stress [Jorat].
Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Björnstedt, M., Rosén, A., & Dahlström, U. (2013). Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined Selenium (symbol Se, atomic number 34) is a trace element that is an essential nutrient and an essential component of some of the most important antioxidants in the body, in particular the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P. Selenium is involved in the optimal functioning of the immune system. Professor Alehagen has pointed out that there exists a... Read more about this term and coenzyme Q10 supplementation: a 5-year prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(5), 1860-1866.
Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. Plos One, 13(4), e0193120. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193120
Golomb, B. CoQ10 and gulf war illness. Neural Computation 2014 Nov; Vol. 26 (11), pp. 2594-651.
Jorat, M. V., Tabrizi, R., Mirhosseini, N., Lankarani, K. B., Akbari, M., Heydari, S. T., & Asemi, Z. (2018). The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on lipid profiles among patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized controlled trials are studies in which patients or healthy volunteers are assigned at random (purely by chance) to receive one or more clinical interventions. One or more of the interventions is the active treatment being tested. Another of the interventions is the control against which the active treatment is being tested. The control is, typically, the standard practice or... Read more about this term. Lipids in Health and Disease, 17(1), 230.
Jorat, M. V., Tabrizi, R., Kolahdooz, F., Akbari, M., Salami, M., Heydari, S. T., & Asemi, Z. (2019). The effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress in among coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Inflammopharmacology. https://doi-org.db14.linccweb.org/10.1007/s10787-019-00572-x
Judy, W. V. (2018). Private communication.
Kalén, A., Appelkvist E.L., Dallner G. (1989). Age-related changes in the lipid compositions of rat and human tissues. Lipids, 24(7):579–584.
Lee, B.-J., Tseng, Y.-F., Yen, C.-H., & Lin, P.-T. (2013). Effects of coenzyme Q10 supplementation (300 mg/day) on antioxidation and anti-inflammation in coronary artery disease patients during Statins are a class of medications that effectively block the body’s synthesis of cholesterol. In so doing, statins also block the body’s synthesis of Coenzyme Q10.... Read more about this term therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrition Journal, 12(1), 142.
Morisco, C., Trimarco, B., & Condorelli, M. (1993). Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with The Mayo Clinic defines heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure and/or chronic heart failure, as the failure of the heart muscle to pump blood to the body adequately. In other words, heart failure is not a heart attack, and it is not death from heart disease, which its name might seem to imply. Heart failure is a condition... Read more about this term: a long-term multicenter randomized study. The Clinical Investigator, 71(8 Suppl), S134-S136.
Mortensen, S. A., Rosenfeldt, F., Kumar, A., Dolliner, P., Filipiak, K. J., Pella, D., & Littarru, G. P. (2014). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC. Heart Failure, 2(6), 641-649.
Munkholm, H., Hansen, H. H., & Rasmussen, K. (1999). Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart failure. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 9(2-4), 285-289.
Okuyama, H., Langsjoen, P. H., Hamazaki, T., Ogushi, Y., Hama, R., Kobayashi, T., & Uchino, H. (2015). Statins stimulate atherosclerosis and heart failure: pharmacological mechanisms. Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology, 8(2), 189-199.
The information presented in this review article is not intended as medical advice and should not be used as such.Please click here for additional information about the heart health effects of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation.