Coenzyme Q10 and energy synthesis and Prader-Willi children

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Energy in the form of ATP molecules is synthesized in the mitochondria in the cells. With insufficient availability of Coenzyme Q10, we get low energy synthesis. With low energy, we exercise less. With too little Coenzyme Q10 and less exercise, the mitochondria — the organelles that synthesize ATP — tend to atrophy and eventually cease to function properly.

Coenzyme Q10 has important functions in the body: energy synthesis, antioxidant activity, and stabilization of cell membranes.  Energy synthesis takes place in the mitochondria of the cells.  This is important to know.  Energy synthesis takes place in the mitochondria of the cells.  Every cell contains some very small oblong bean-shaped organelles called mitochondria.  The mitochondria have both an inner and an outer membrane.

The mitochondria in the cells and Q10
These mitochondria vary considerably in their size and in their numbers in the individual cells.  Typically, mitochondria are 60 – 75 angstroms thick.  That is, they are 60 – 75 ten-billionths of a meter thick.  The length of the mitochondrion is approximately 1 to 10 micrometers, much too small to see.  By comparison, an average strand of human hair is 60 – 80 micrometers in diameter (= 600,000 – 800,000 angstroms).

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Q10 and selenium interrelationship

Periodic Table
Element number 34, selenium, is an essential trace element in the body. It functions as an antioxidant, it helps to protect the heart and the blood vessels, and it is thought to help to prevent strokes and hardening of the arteries. It has a beneficial interrelationship with Coenzyme Q10.

What is the story with the trace element selenium?  Are we getting enough of it in our diets?  Do we need it as an antioxidant in addition to Coenzyme Q10 and vitamin C and vitamin E and the other antioxidants? And does it work together with Q10 in some mysterious way?

Quick review: Coenzyme Q10 itself is a marvelously constructed molecule.  The molecule, which is fat soluble, has a benzoquinone head and, attached to the head, a tail consisting of ten isoprene units with a total of 50 carbon atoms.  Accordingly, Q10 supplements have to be formulated carefully to enable a good absorption.  We humans do synthesize some Q10 in nearly all of the cells of our bodies in a complicated 17-step process that involves several vitamins and minerals.  And, depending on what types of food we eat, we also get some Q10 in our diets.

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Coenzyme Q10 benefits Gulf War veterans

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Between 1/4 and 1/3 of the men and women who served in the first Gulf War continue to suffer from a variety of symptoms caused by environmental exposure.

Can a daily Coenzyme Q10 supplement help to alleviate the multi-symptom medical and psychological problems afflicting one-fourth or more of the veterans of the first Gulf War?

That was the research question that Dr. Beatrice Golomb, M.D. and Ph.D., together with colleagues in the Departments of Medicine and Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California in San Diego, set out to investigate (1).

Well over 100,000 veterans, possibly almost 200,000 veterans, of the Gulf War in 1990-1991 continue to suffer from a collection of symptoms associated with their participation in the desert warfare.  As Dr. Golomb says in her article in the journal Neural Computation, the symptoms and the problems of the veterans have not resolved themselves with the passage of time.

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More energy with Q10!

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Coenzyme Q10 is necessary for energy production in our cells.

You are on the go most of the time.  You burn up a lot of energy in the course of the day. You undoubtedly know that the body produces something called ATP (adenosine triphosphate) in the cells and that it uses the ATP to generate energy.  But the cells produce and store only so much ATP.  With strenuous exertion, you will soon deplete those stores of ATP.

Okay, so, how does Coenzyme Q10 come into the picture? First of all, Q10 itself is a fat-soluble substance that is synthesized in our bodies in a complicated multi-step process that requires the optimal availability of several vitamins, most notably vitamin B6.

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Ubiquinone or Ubiquinol? Which one should I buy?

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Which one is the logical choice?
Ubiquinone or Ubiquinol?

Coenzyme Q10 comes in two different forms: the oxidized form called ubiquinone and the reduced form called ubiquinol. What do the terms oxidized and reduced mean? Basically, they are terms from chemistry. The oxidized form is the Q10 molecule that has donated electrons. The reduced form is the Q10 molecule that has accepted electrons. Together, the two forms make up a redox pair, and the point about a redox pair is that the body converts the two forms back and forth.

Lately, there has been a lot of advertising hype for the ubiquinol form of Q10. On the Web, there have been undocumented claims that, after the age of 40, we might have more difficulty converting the ubiquinone molecule to the ubiquinol molecule in our bodies.

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Thinking about Q10 as a Wonder Drug

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What exactly is a wonder drug?

Is there any such thing as a wonder drug? Usually, we think that there is no such thing. But, if there is, what is required for a drug to be called a wonder drug?

Given the recent impressive results with Q10 in the Q-SYMBIO clinical trial, do we maybe want to re-think the concept of wonder drug?

“Wonder drug” overused
Now, you are thinking … yeah, yeah, you have heard the term wonder drug too often lately. When Prozac came out, it was regarded as a wonder drug. Then Viagra was considered a wonder drug. And we are promised new wonder drugs for cancer and for diabetes every week, it seems.

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Improve Your Exercise Performance with Q10

Q10 not on the doping list
Q10 supplementation increases the time to exhaustion and is not on the doping list

How much can daily supplementation with Q10 improve your exercise performance? How much can it improve your recovery time after hard physical activity?

The big puzzle is that we do not have more studies showing that CoQ10 improves exercise performance. Intuitively, we think, exercise and fitness should be an area in which the positive effects of taking CoQ10 will be most obvious.

Q10 and producing ATP
After all, CoQ10 is required for the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the mitochondria of muscle cells, and ATP is what the cells use whenever they need energy. Furthermore, the cells store only enough ATP, at any one time, for a few minutes’ worth of exertion, which means that a steady supply of CoQ10 has to be on hand.

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