In randomized controlled trialsRandomized controlled trials are studies in which patients or healthy volunteers are assigned at random (purely by chance) to receive one or more clinical interventions. One or more of the interventions is the active treatment being tested. Another of the interventions is the control against which the active treatment is being tested. The control is, typically, the standard practice or... More of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fractionEjection fraction, sometimes called left ventricular ejection fraction, measures the percentage of blood that the heart pumps out of the left ventricle with each heart contraction. According to the Mayo Clinic guidelines, an ejection fraction above 55% is regarded as normal. An ejection fraction under 50% is regarded as reduced. An ejection fraction below 40% is indicative of heart failure... More, NYHAThe New York Heart Association Functional Classification distinguishes four categories of heart failure according to how much the patients are limited in their physical activity. Category I: No limitation of physical activity. No undue fatigue, palpitation, or shortness of breath. Category II: Slight limitation of physical activity. Comfortable at rest. Fatigue, palpitation, or shortness of breath at ordinary physical activity.... More class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc.

The p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10

supplementation and the effect of the placebo supplementation is a true difference and not a difference

that could be caused just by chance.

The p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More is the probability that the observed difference between the CoQ10 effect and the placebo effect occurs just by chance if, in fact, the hypothesis, called the null hypothesis, is correct that there is no significantThe outcome of a clinical trial is thought to have statistical significance, or to be statistically significant, if the outcome is likely not caused by chance at a given statistical significance level, typically at the 0.05 level. Statistically significant outcomes may or may not be clinically significant. More difference between the active CoQ10 treatment and the placebo treatment.

P-values can have any value between 0 and 1. If the p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More is close to 0, then the observed difference is unlikely to be due to chance.

If the p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More is close to 1, then the difference between the CoQ10 group and the placebo group is thought to be due to chance and not due to the effect of the CoQ10 supplement.

Typically, clinical trialClinical trials are research studies in which various treatments, interventions, or tests are investigated for their safety and efficacy when used to detect, prevent, or treat diseases and medical conditions in patients and healthy volunteers. The gold standard for clinical trials are randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. More results are thought to be statistically significantThe outcome of a clinical trial is thought to have statistical significance, or to be statistically significant, if the outcome is likely not caused by chance at a given statistical significance level, typically at the 0.05 level. Statistically significant outcomes may or may not be clinically significant. More if the p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More is smaller than a

pre-specified confidence level, which is often the 0.05 level but could be the 0.01 level.

A p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More of 0.05 means that one out of 20 studies of the same design and sample size would result, just by chance, in a difference at least as big as the difference observed in the actual study, meaning that would be a 5% chance of calling an observed different significantThe outcome of a clinical trial is thought to have statistical significance, or to be statistically significant, if the outcome is likely not caused by chance at a given statistical significance level, typically at the 0.05 level. Statistically significant outcomes may or may not be clinically significant. More when it is not significantThe outcome of a clinical trial is thought to have statistical significance, or to be statistically significant, if the outcome is likely not caused by chance at a given statistical significance level, typically at the 0.05 level. Statistically significant outcomes may or may not be clinically significant. More.

A larger sample size should result in a smaller p-valueIn randomized controlled trials of the efficacy of CoQ10 supplementation, the effect of the CoQ10 supplement is compared with the effect of a placebo supplement on specified outcomes such as mortality, ejection fraction, NYHA class, hospitalizations, health-related quality of life, etc. The p-value is a measure of the probability that an observed difference between the effect of the CoQ10 supplementation... More only if the null hypothesis is false, which is

what we want in trial of CoQ10 efficacy. We want the CoQ10 effect to be greater than the placebo effect.