As we get older, the risk of heart disease increases. There are two basic explanations for this increasing risk:
- Mitochondrial dysfunction is the loss of efficiency in the process of ATP energy production. As such, mitochondrial dysfunction is a factor in the ageing process and in virtually all chronic diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and neurodegenerative diseases. Coenzyme Q10 is an essential component in the mitochondrial production of ATP energy.... Read more about this term
- Oxidative stress
The The mitochondria are the bean-shaped organelles in the cells. They are the key organelles with responsibility for the production of ATP energy molecules.... Read more about this term are the tiny “powerhouses” in our cells. They are organelles with their own DNA. They produce almost all the energy that our cells need to live and work.
A slow degeneration of the quality of the mitochondria seems to be a cause of ageing and a cause of many of the degenerative diseases that come with ageing [Know 2018].
It is in the mitochondria that the food we eat is processed together with the oxygen we breath to make cellular energy, ATP (adenosine triphosphate) molecules are the high-energy molecules with easily broken phosphate bonds that release energy to the energy-requiring processes in the cells. Coenzyme Q10 is essential to the process of ATP production.... Read more about this term energy.
CoQ10 a vital factor in cellular energy production.
Coenzyme Q10 is a vital co-factor in this process of producing cellular energy. The study of this process is called Bio-energetics is both the process and the study of the flow and transformation of energy in living beings. Coenzyme Q10 has both a bio-energetics function and an antioxidant function in the body.... Read more about this term. Without adequate Coenzyme Q10, the process breaks down.
Note: Coenzyme Q10 is a vitamin-like fat-soluble substance that is synthesized in almost all cells of the human body. However, with increasing age above the age of 35 or 40, the body’s bio-synthesis of CoQ10 declines.
We cannot make up the loss of CoQ10 by eating more or eating better. A good CoQ10 supplement is a necessity.
If mitochondrial function is compromised by inadequate levels of CoQ10, then the result will be weakness, fatigue, and increased risk of heart disease and stroke [Know 2018].
Our processing of food and oxygen to make cellular energy is seldom 100% efficient. Inevitably, some electrons escape in the process, and harmful superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide radicals form.
Admittedly, a certain level of Free radicals are unstable and highly reactive molecules that are produced in the body during normal oxygen metabolism. Free radicals derived from oxygen are known as reactive oxygen species. Free radicals play both helpful and harmful roles in the body. Free radicals steal electrons from other substances in order to become stable. In so doing, the free radicals oxidize those... Read more about this term is needed for cell signaling purposes and for the maintenance of cell homeostasis.
However, high levels of free radicals unquenched by antioxidants result in free radical chain reactions that damage cells, lipids, proteins, and DNA.
Too much cumulative cellular damage by harmful radicals is called oxidative stress.
Oxidative stress is implicated in most processes known to have a harmful effect on heart function [Yang 2015].
Hydrogen peroxide radicals induce increased Oxidation is the chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen. Peroxidation is the extreme form of oxidation that results from free radicals’ stealing electrons from lipids, either in the cell membranes or in the lipoproteins. The final product of lipid peroxidation is highly reactive malondialdehyde, a bio-marker for oxidative stress and damage.... Read more about this term. Lipid Oxidation is the chemical reaction of a substance with oxygen. Peroxidation is the extreme form of oxidation that results from free radicals’ stealing electrons from lipids, either in the cell membranes or in the lipoproteins. The final product of lipid peroxidation is highly reactive malondialdehyde, a bio-marker for oxidative stress and damage.... Read more about this term is the oxidative degradation of fats in the body.
The reduced form of CoQ10, known as ubiquinol, is a fat-soluble Antioxidants are substances that protect the cells and lipoproteins against the harmful effects of free radicals. They are substances that prevent the oxidation of other molecules and compounds. There are two broad categories of antioxidants: enzymatic and non-enzymatic. Non-enzymatic antioxidants are substances like Coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, vitamin E, glutathione, and various carotenoids. Prominent enzymatic antioxidants include catalase, glutathione peroxidase,... Read more about this term that intervenes to prevent the formation of lipid peroxide radicals [Yang 2015].
Clinical evidence of CoQ10 protection
- Improvement of heart muscle bio-energetics
- Antioxidant activity in heart muscle tissue
- Anti-inflammatory activity in heart muscle tissue
Clinical studies have shown the following beneficial effects of adjunctive treatment of The Mayo Clinic defines heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure and/or chronic heart failure, as the failure of the heart muscle to pump blood to the body adequately. In other words, heart failure is not a heart attack, and it is not death from heart disease, which its name might seem to imply. Heart failure is a condition... Read more about this term with Coenzyme Q10 supplements in daily dosages from 150 to 300 milligrams [Yang]:
- Net improvements in Ejection fraction, sometimes called left ventricular ejection fraction, measures the percentage of blood that the heart pumps out of the left ventricle with each heart contraction. According to the Mayo Clinic guidelines, an ejection fraction above 55% is regarded as normal. An ejection fraction under 50% is regarded as reduced. An ejection fraction below 40% is indicative of heart failure... Read more about this term (= percentage of blood pumped from the heart with each contraction)
- Reductions in complications and hospitalizations
- Clinical improvement in cyanosis, edema, pulmonary rales, dyspnoea, palpitations, and arrythmia
CoQ10 supplementation plays an important role in blood pressure regulation in three ways [Yang]:
- Antioxidant activity
- Preservation of nitric oxide
- Improved production of the prostaglandin prostacyclin
Clinical studies have shown that Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is associated with lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressure when used as an adjunct to conventional Hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure, usually defined as adult systolic blood pressure above 140 mm Hg or adult diastolic blood pressure above 90 mm Hg. Systolic blood pressure is blood pressure measured during the contracting (pumping) of the left ventricle of the heart. Diastolic blood pressure is blood pressure measured during the relaxation of the left ventricle. A meta-analysis... Read more about this term agents such as diuretics and ACE inhibitors [Yang].
CoQ10 supplementation does not have a vasodilatory or hypotensive effect in healthy animals or humans. The hypotensive effect of CoQ10 supplementation seems to be specific to the condition of increased oxidative stress in hypertensive patients [Yang].
Coenzyme Q10 has been shown to improve endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and diabetes [Yang].
The The endothelium is the layer of cells that line the surface of the inside of the arteries and veins, the heart, and lymph vessels.The endothelium releases molecules, e.g. nitric oxide, angiotensin II, etc., that help to expand (dilate) or contract (constrict) the blood vessels and thus raise or lower blood pressure. The cells of the endothelium release substances (called factors)... Read more about this term is the bio-medical term for the single layer of cells lining the inside of the blood vessels, the lymph vessels, and the heart.
Endothelial dysfunction may be thought of as the failure of the cells lining the inside of arteries and veins to regulate properly blood vessel relaxation and contraction, blood clotting, immune function, and platelet adhesion. Endothelial dysfunction prevents the blood vessels from dilating sufficiently and can lead to increased risk of atherosclerosis, heart attack, and stroke. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation is associated... Read more about this term is the bio-medical term for the deterioration of the endothelium leading to impaired dilation of blood vessels, increased Inflammation is an immune system response to an injury to cells or tissues. It is the body’s attempt to defend against invaders such as bacteria andviruses and to mend the damage done by invaders. Typically, inflammation manifests itself in the form of fever and swelling, in the swarming of white blood cells and the release of cytokines to fight against... Read more about this term, and increased risk of forming blood clots.
Adequate levels of CoQ10 help to prevent the development of endothelial dysfunction by preventing oxidative stress and inflammation [Yang].
Conclusion: CoQ10 protects against cardiovascular disorders
Low CoQ10 levels are associated with increased risk of congestive heart failure, coronary artery disease, angina pectoris, and hypertension [Yang].
Randomized controlled trials have shown that adjuvant treatment with CoQ10 benefits heart failure patients [Mortensen, Munkholm, Morisco].
A randomized controlled trial has shown that combination supplementation with CoQ10 and a high-selenium yeast helps senior citizens maintain good heart health [Alehagen].
Alehagen, U., Johansson, P., Björnstedt, M., Rosén, A., & Dahlström, U. (2013). Cardiovascular mortality and N-terminal-proBNP reduced after combined Selenium (symbol Se, atomic number 34) is a trace element that is an essential nutrient and an essential component of some of the most important antioxidants in the body, in particular the selenoproteins glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and selenoprotein P. Selenium is involved in the optimal functioning of the immune system. Professor Alehagen has pointed out that there exists a... Read more about this term and Coenzyme Q10 supplementation: a 5-year prospective randomized A double-blind study is a study in which neither the investigators nor the study participants know which participants are receiving the active treatment and which participants are receiving the control treatment until the study has been completed and the seal on the code has been broken.... Read more about this term placebo-controlled trial among elderly Swedish citizens. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(5), 1860-1866. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.04.156
Alehagen, U., Aaseth, J., Alexander, J., & Johansson, P. (2018). Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly. Plos One, 13(4), e0193120. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0193120
Know, L. (2018). Mitochondria and the Future of Medicine. White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.
Morisco, C., Trimarco, B., & Condorelli, M. (1993). Effect of coenzyme Q10 therapy in patients with The Mayo Clinic defines heart failure, also known as congestive heart failure and/or chronic heart failure, as the failure of the heart muscle to pump blood to the body adequately. In other words, heart failure is not a heart attack, and it is not death from heart disease, which its name might seem to imply. Heart failure is a condition... Read more about this term: a long-term multicenter randomized study. The Clinical Investigator, 71(8 Suppl), S134-S136.
Mortensen, S. A., Rosenfeldt, F., Kumar, A., Dolliner, P., Filipiak, K. J., Pella, D., & Littarru, G. P. (2014). The effect of coenzyme Q10 on morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure: results from Q-SYMBIO: a randomized double-blind trial. JACC. Heart Failure, 2(6), 641-649.
Munkholm, H., Hansen, H. H., & Rasmussen, K. (1999). Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart failure. Biofactors (Oxford, England), 9(2-4), 285-289.
Yang, Y.-K., Wang, L.-P., Chen, L., Yao, X.-P., Yang, K.-Q., Gao, L.-G., & Zhou, X.-L. (2015). Coenzyme Q10 treatment of cardiovascular disorders of ageing including heart failure, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry, 450, 83–89. https://doi-org.db14.linccweb.org/10.1016/j.cca.2015.08.002
The information presented in this review article is not intended as medical advice and should not be construed as such.Please click here for additional information about the heart health benefits of Coenzyme Q10 supplements.